NEGARA BERDASARKAN HUKUM (RECHTSSTAATS) BUKAN NEGARA KEKUASAAN (MACHTSSTAAT) / RULE OF LAW AND NOT POWER STATE

Zahermann Armandz Muabezi

Abstract


Cita negara hukum pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Plato dan kemudian pemikiran tersebut dipertegas oleh Aristoteles. Plato memiliki konsep bahwa penyelenggaraan negara yang baik didasarkan pada pengaturan (hukum) yang baik, hal ini disebut dengan istilah nomoi. Dalam perkembangannya konsep cita negara hukum Plato dan Aristoteles oleh Rudolf von Gneist dinamakan dengan rechtsstaat dimana sebelumnya oleh Albert Venn Dicey dinamakan dengan rule of law. Pada prinsipnya rechtsstaat atau rule of law bertujuan untuk membatasi penguasa (pemerintah dalam artian luas) dalam bersikap dan bertindak yang didasarkan pada peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku pada suatu tempat dan waktu tertentu atas rakyatnya. Doktrin rechtsstaat atau rule of law hanya bisa tumbuh di negara yang menganut demokrasi. Tanpa negara hukum dan demokrasi yang hadir hanyalah paham totaliter, fasis, absolut dan represif. Politik jadi panglima dimana hukum menjadi alat mempertahankan kekuasasaan yang tidak sejalan dengan pemerintah. Wujud seperti inilah yang dinamakan negara kekuasaan (machtsstaat). Tulisan ini mencoba menggunakan pisau analisa hukum empiris (empirical analysis). Doktrin negara hukum dan demokrasi sama-sama merupakan atribut negara modern dari sebuah sistem politik yang dibangun lebih dari dua abad yang lalu. Transformasi transisi demokrasi memastikan bahwa kekuasaan otoriter menjadi demokrasi berdasar supremasi hukum menyiratkan bahwa keduanya dapat dicapai secara bersamaan dengan melibatkan seluruh pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) yang diberi peran masing-masing dan kesempatan secara bersama sesuai kesepakatan yang telah disetujui di awal.

The vision of the rule of law was first forwarded by Plato and then confirmed by Aristotle. Plato’s concept stated that a good state administration is based on a good (law) arrangement, this term called nomoi. In further development Rudolf von Gneist name this term with rechtsstaat where earlier Albert Venn Dicey named it the rule of law. In principle rechtsstaat or rule of law aims to limit the rulers (government in a broad sense) attitudes and acts based on laws and regulations that apply at a certain place and time on the people. The doctrine of rechtsstaats or rule of law can only grow in a democratic country. Without the rule of law and democracy there will be only totalitarian, fascist, absolute and repressive ideology. Politics becomes the highest commander where the law become a means of maintaining the power which is inconsistent with the government. This form is called the state of power (machtsstaat). This article is trying to use empirical analysis. The doctrine of the state of law and democracy are both the attributes of the modern state of a political system built more than two centuries ago. The transformation of the democratic transition ensures that authoritarian rule becomes democracy based on the rule of law implying that both can be achieved together by involving all stakeholders given their respective roles and chance simultaneously according to the agreement.


Keywords


negara hukum; negara kekuasaan; ukuran negara hukum; demokrasi; rule of law; power sate; rule of law measurement; democracy;

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25216/JHP.6.3.2017.421-446

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