HOW DEMOCRACY IS ELECTION? REASSESSING ARTICLE 18 (4) OF THE 1945 CONSTITUTION AND ITS IMPLICATION TO THE REGIONAL HEAD ELECTION IN INDONESIA

Muhammad Bahrul Ulum(1*)

(1) Graduate School of International Development, Nagoya University, Japan
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This paper aims to reassess the term “elected democratically” in Article 18 (4) of Indonesia’s revised 1945 Constitution which resulted in the competing interpretation over the appropriate method for selecting heads of regional governments in Indonesia. In fact, the flexibility of such a term was challenged and negotiated to formulate an appropriate mechanism to select heads of regional governments. In 2004, the Constitutional Court concluded that the legislative body was the ultimate institution to interpret “elected democratically” so that this institution can opt whether a regional head election or an indirect election to define such a term. While the regional head election was applied, including its dispute settlements over electoral results to the Constitutional Court, this Court considered a different argument. In 2013, the Constitutional Court reinterpreted such an article by highlighting that the regional head election should be exempted from the general election subjected to Article 22E (2) of 1945 Constitution. In 2014, President Yudhoyono’s rejection from his agreement after the enactment of the Selection of Heads of Regional Governments Bill put further juridical contentions in which the President finally revoked the adoption of the regional head voting by the Regional People’s Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPRD). As a consequence, the regional head election has been re-adopted and this regional election has remained to be expected to improve the performance of local democracy. The introduction of this direct election model at the regional level, however, questions the important role of political parties because the adoption of this election was substantially to answer public distrust against them. In particular, the debate whether political parties work becomes intense after non-party candidates are allowed to contest to this election.


Keywords


Democracy, Regional Election, article 18 (4) of the 1945 Constitution, Indonesia

Full Text:

ENGLISH

References


Academic Draft Law on Regional Government, 2011.

Alatas, Syed Farid, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Indonesia and Malaysia: The Rise of the post-Colonial State, New York: Springer, 1997.

Article 15 of Law No. 5/1974 on the Basic Regional Government.

Article 24 (5) of Act No. 32/2004.

Article 24 (5) of Law No. 32/2004 on the Regional Government.

Article 56 (1) of Act No. 32/2004.

Asshiddiqie, Jimly, “Partai Politik dan Pemilihan Umum Sebagai Instrumen Demokrasi”, Jurnal Konstitusi, vol. 3, no. 4 (2006).

Asshiddiqie, Jimly, Konstitusi dan Konstitusionalisme Indonesia, Yogyakarta: Sinar Grafika, 2010.

Bertrand, Romain, Jean-Louis Briquet and Peter Pels, The Hidden History of the Secret Ballot, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

Budiardjo, Miriam, Dasar-Dasar Ilmu Politik-Edisi revisi (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2008.

Chakim, M. Lutfi, “Perubahan Sistem Pemilihan Kepala Daerah dalam Dinamika Pelaksanaan Demokrasi”, Jurnal Rechts Vinding: Media Pembinaan Hukum Nasional, vol. 3, no. 1 (2014), pp. 113-127.

Darmaputera, Eka, Pancasila and the Search for Identity and Modernity in Indonesian Society: A Cultural and Ethical Analysis, Leiden: Brill, 1988.

Dowdle, Michael W. and Michael A Wilkinson, Constitutionalism beyond Liberalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Hadiz, Vedi, Localising Power in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia: A Southeast Asia Perspective, Redwood: Stanford University Press, 2010.

Hoesein, Zainal Arifin, “Pemilu Kepala Daerah dalam Transisi Demokrasi”, Jurnal Konstitusi, vol. 7, no. 6 (2010), pp. 1-24.

Hoesein, Zainal Arifin, Judicial Review: Tiga Dekade Pengujian Peraturan Perundang-undangan di Mahkamah Agung, Jakarta: RajaGrafindo Persada, 2009.

HSB, Ali Marwan, “Pemilihan Kepala Daerah yang Demokratis Berdasarkan Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi Nomor 97/PUU-IX/2013”, Jurnal Legislasi Indonesia, vol. 13, no. 3 (2018), pp. 227-234.

Hutapea, Bungasan, “Dinamika hukum pemilihan kepala daerah di Indonesia”, Jurnal Rechts Vinding: Media Pembinaan Hukum Nasional, vol. 4, no. 1 (2015), pp. 1-20.

Jayani, Dwi Hadya, “Jejak Sengketa Pilkada di MK: Diskualifikasi Calon hingga Pemilu Ulang”, KataData.co.id (June 18, 2019), https://katadata.co.id/berita/2019/06/18/jejak-sengketa-pilkada-di-mk-diskualifikasi-calon-hingga-pemilu-ulang, accessed June 20, 2019.

Kompas.com, MK: Pemilihan dan Penghitungan Ulang Pilkada Jatim (December 2, 2008), https://tekno.kompas.com/read/2008/12/02/11571396/mk.pemilihan.dan.penghitungan.ulang.pilkada.jatim, accessed June 2 2019.

Law No. 22/1999 on the Regional Government.

Muhtadi, Burhanuddin, “Buying Votes in Indonesia: Partisans, Personal Networks, and Winning Margins”, PhD. Dissertation, The Australian National University, 2018.

Pramusinto, Agus, “Otonomi Daerah dan Pemilihan Kepala Daerah”, Jurnal Analisis CSIS, (2004).

Rabasa, Angel, and John Haseman, The military and democracy in Indonesia: challenges, politics, and power, Santa Monica: Rand Corporation, 2002.

Simamora, Janpatar, “Eksistensi Pemilukada dalam Rangka Mewujudkan Pemerintahan Daerah yang Demokratis,” Mimbar Hukum, vol. 23, no. 1 (2011), pp. 221-236.

Tempo.co, MK Perintahkan Pemilu Tangerang Selatan Diulang (December 11, 2010), https://nasional.tempo.co/read/298197/mk-perintahkan-pemilu-tangerang-selatan-diulang, accessed June 2 2019.

Tempo.co, MK Perintahkan Pemilu Tangerang Selatan Diulang (December 11, 2010), https://nasional.tempo.co/read/298197/mk-perintahkan-pemilu-tangerang-selatan-diulang, accessed June 2 2019.

The Constitutional Court’s Decision No. 72-73/PUU-II/2004 (the judicial review of Act No. 32.2004 on Regional Governments).

The Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 41/PHPU.D-VI/2008.

The Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 22/PHPU.D-VIII/2010.

The Decision of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 209-210/PHPU.D-VIII/2010.

Tomsa, Dirk and Andreas Ufen (eds.), Party Politics in Southeast Asia: Clientelism and Electoral Competition in Indonesia, Thailand and the Philippines, Routledge contemporary Southeast Asia series 55, New York: Routledge, 2013.

Ulum, Muhammad Bahrul, and Nilna Aliyan Hamida, “Revisiting Liberal Democracy and Asian Values in Contemporary Indonesia”, Constitutional Review, vol. 4, no. 1 (2018), pp. 111-130.

Yarni, Meri, “Penyusunan naskah akademik sesuai ketentuan Undang-Undang Nomor 12 Tahun 2011 dalam proses pembentukan Peraturan Daerah”, Jurnal Ilmu Hukum Jambi, vol. 5, no. 1 (2014).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25216/JHP.8.2.2019.315-332

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 0 times
ENGLISH - 0 times

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Abstracting and Indexing By: